One of least understood and most commonly charged crimes in Arizona is “Failure to Comply with a Lawful Order” in violation of Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) section 28-622(A). The crime is classified as a class 2 misdemeanor. The statute provides:
28-622. Failure to comply with police officer…
- A person shall not wilfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of a police officer invested by law with authority to direct, control or regulate traffic. (“Willful” and its variations are spelled “wilful” in the statute, an accepted but archaic spelling in American English.)
But the question remains, how do you assert your rights during a traffic stop without running the risk of being arrested with “Failure to Comply” under ARS Section 28-622(A)?
First, it is important to remember that an officer can either ask you to do something or order you to do something. If the officer is merely inviting you to do something on a voluntary basis without ordering you to do it, then you are free to decline the invitation.
On the other hand, if the officer gives you an order that is “lawful” when it is issued, then you should comply in order to avoid an arrest and prosecution for ARS 28-622(A). Making such a decision in the heat of the moment at the scene creates problems for the officer and the person being detained.
A Recent Challenge to the Constitutionality of ARS 28-622(A)
A recent decision from the Court of Appeals of Arizona, issued on October 8, 2015, sheds light on the nature of the charge and the vagueness of its terms. Although many criminal defense attorneys consider the charge a “catch-all” provision that allows an officer to make an arrest even when no other crime was committed, the Courts have upheld its constitutionality after a recent challenge.
The decision shows the tremendous and nearly unlimited discretion officers have to make an arrest for merely failing to company with an order of the law enforcement officer. At trial, the job of the criminal defense attorney is to show reasonable doubt about one of the elements of the offense, including whether:
- The defendant acted willfully;
- The defendant failed or refused to comply with an order or direction of a police officer;
- The order or direction was a lawful order at the time it was issued; and
- The police officer was invested by law with authority to direct, control or regulate traffic.
In State v. Burke, (No. 1 CA-CR 14-0438. Court of Appeals of Arizona, Division One. October 8, 2015), the Court recently examined the constitutionality of the statute after a prosecution by the Scottsdale City Prosecutor’s Office. The bench trial took place in the Scottsdale Municipal Court. After the conviction, the defendant appealed to the Maricopa County Superior Court arguing, among other things, that the A.R.S. § 28-622(A) is unconstitutionally vague and over broad.
The Court briefly recounted the facts of the case as follows:
“This case arises out of a routine traffic stop. After Burke allegedly failed to stop at a stop sign, a police officer pulled Burke over, asked him for his license and registration, and directed him not to move his vehicle. Burke disobeyed the instructions, drove his vehicle to the side of the roadway, called 911, and eventually exited his vehicle after additional officers arrived on the scene. Burke was arrested after exiting his vehicle.”
On appeal the Court held that the statute was not vague because “the statute does not punish individuals for a mere failure to obey; instead, it requires a willful, or knowing refusal or failure to comply, which is tantamount to an affirmative act of rejection.”
Therefore, the Court found that the terms “wilful” and “wilfully fail,” as used in the statute, are not so indefinite as to be considered constitutionally invalid.
Burke also argued that the phrase “lawful order or direction” in A.R.S. § 28-622(A) lacks sufficient definiteness such that it is unconstitutionally vague. The Court recognized that the term “lawful order” was not defined by the Arizona Legislature in the statutory scheme.
The Court, however, looked at the ordinary meaning of that phrase and found it required “the individual to comply with a police officer’s instructions that are, at the time they are issued, authorized by law.” The Court noted that because “many police orders can be deemed lawful (e.g.: “step out of the car with your hands up,” or to the person exiting the vehicle, “put down your weapon”), the facial attack here must fail.”
The Court also argued that A.R.S. § 28-622(A) was not unconstitutionally vague because did not fail to establish minimal guidelines for enforcement or open up the possibility of discriminatory and arbitrary enforcement.
Recent Decision on on the Constitutionality of ARS 28-622 — Visit the portals of Azcourts.gov, the website for the Arizona Judicial Branch, to find recent court decisions from the Court of Appeals in the State v. Burke case. Also find recent decisions issued by the Arizona Supreme Court, as well as publications and reports, licensing and regulations, a self help center, and information from the Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC).
ARS 28-622 — Failure to Comply with a Police Officer — Visit the website of the Arizona Legislature to read the complete statutory language of the Failure to Comply with a Police Officer statute under ARS 28-622.
Finding an Attorney in Arizona for “Failure to Comply” Cases
If you were charged with willfully refusing or failing to comply with a lawful order or direction of a police officer in violation of Arizona Revised Statutes (“A.R.S.”) section 28-622(A), then contact James Novak, an experienced criminal defense attorney in Tempe, AZ.
James Novak represents clients on misdemeanor and felony charges throughout the greater Phoenix area and the surrounding East Valley Cities including Scottsdale, Tempe, Chandler, and Gilbert, Arizona.
James Novak also represents clients on related charges including Disorderly Conduct under ARS 13-2904, Resisting Arrest under ARS 13-2508, and Unlawful Flight from a Pursuing Law Enforcement Vehicle under ARS 28-622.01.
On November 20, 2015, the Supreme Court of Arizona decided Dobson v. McClennen (P.3d, 2015 WL 7353847, Arizona Supreme Court 2015). The decision has important implications for individuals that use medical marijuana and might have THC or its metabolite in their system but drive at a time when they are not impaired. Jokingly called the “Driving While a Habitual User of Marijuana,” these prosecutions are no joke.
Although the responsible use of cannabis for medical purposes has largely been decriminalized in Arizona, prior to this decision the DUI laws effectively made it a crime to drive as a medical marijuana patient (even after the impairing effects faded and disappeared). In other words, using medical marijuana should not automatically be a DUI when there was no actual impairment at the time of driving.
The decision in Dobson v. McClennen didn’t make either side happy. The defense wanted a ruling that Medical Marijuana Patients were immune from the “per se” version of DUI under § 28–1381(A)(3). On the other hand, the prosecution wanted a ruling that a positive blood test meant an automatic “per se” DUI conviction under § 28–1381(A)(3). The Court rejected both positions and came up with a middle ground that leaves many of the complicated issues surrounding driving after consuming medical marijuana unresolved.
In these cases, the main evidence is usually a blood test revealing THC and/or its impairing metabolite, hydroxy-THC. But this evidence alone doesn’t necessary mean that the driver was actually impaired by marijuana at the time of driving. THC and its metabolite stay in a driver’s system long after the impairing effects have disappeared.
In these cases, the presence of THC or its metabolite hydroxy-THC is largely irrelevant to impairment. In other words, the presence of THC or the metabolite hydroxy-THC often has little correlation with actual impairment. Now if the defense raises this new affirmative defense at trial, the issue is left up to the fact-finder to decide.
Under this recent decision, the driver must present some evidence to raise the affirmative Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) Marijuana DUI defense. Raising the affirmative defense would require a showing by the defendant, by a preponderance of the evidence, of the following:
- That the driver was covered by the AMMA as a registered qualifying patient (or held an equivalent out-of-state-issued medical marijuana registry identification cards which could be shown by admitting the card into evidence or presenting other evidence of its existence); and
- Showing that the concentration of marijuana or its impairing metabolite in their bodies was insufficient to cause actual impairment at the time of driving.
How would the second showing be made? In many of these trials, expert witness testimony could establish that the concentration was insufficient to cause impairment at the time the driving occurred.
The expert witness could be the same witness called by the prosecutor when the blood test and its result are admitted into evidence. Additionally, the defense could call its own expert to testify about this point. In many of these cases, the expert will be able to testify that although the blood test might reveal THC and/or its impairing metabolite hydroxy-THC, based on the driver’s testimony about the timeline of consumption, the amount would not cause actual impairment at the time of driving. Even the experts will have a hard time explaining it to the jury because, unlike for alcohol, there is no accepted threshold for marijuana impairment. Even according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “It is difficult to establish a relationship between a person’s THC blood or plasma concentration and performance impairing effects.”
Other admissible evidence might come from the driver testifying that he or she did not feel impaired. The defense would also be able to argue that other evidence showed a lack of impairment including a safe driving pattern and good performance on field sobriety exercises.
Ultimately, the driver’s DUI convictions in these cases were upheld. But the decision provides an important road map for other people in a similar situations. At the very least, this decision makes a prosecution for driving while impaired by marijuana much more difficult under § 28–1381(A)(3) alone.
The Defendants were convicted in the Maricopa County Municipal Court of driving with an impermissible drug or its metabolite in a person’s body. After the conviction, the Defendants appealed the conviction to the Maricopa County Superior Court. The Superior Court affirmed the conviction.
The Defendants then sought special action review in the court of appeals, which accepted jurisdiction but denied relief finding that “neither A.R.S. § 36–2811(B) nor § 36–2802(D) provides immunity for defendants facing charges for driving with an impermissible drug or impairing metabolite in their bodies under A.R.S. § 28–1381(A)(3).”
Then the Defendants sought relief from the Arizona Supreme Court. The Supreme Court granted review because whether the AMMA immunizes a medical marijuana cardholder from DUI prosecution under § 28–1381(A)(3) presents a recurring issue of statewide importance.
The Supreme Court of the State of Arizona held, as a matter of first impression, that an affirmative defense to the charge could have been made by showing that a qualifying patient’s use of marijuana was authorized by the AMMA and was in a concentration insufficient to cause impairment. The Court also found that under the facts of the case any error in excluding evidence of defendants’ registry cards under the AMMA was harmless.
The Chief Assistant City Prosecutor for the Mesa City Prosecutor’s Office represented the State in the appeal. An amicus brief was filed by Thomas W. Dean, Phoenix, Attorney for Amicus Curiae National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML).
Arizona’s laws generally make it a crime for a person to drive with any amount of certain drugs, including marijuana or its impairing metabolite, in the person’s body. (A.R.S. § 28–1381(A)(3)). In the case, the Arizona Supreme Court held for the first time that “the AMMA does not immunize a medical marijuana cardholder from prosecution under § 28–1381(A)(3), but instead affords an affirmative defense if the cardholder shows that the marijuana or its metabolite was in a concentration insufficient to cause impairment.”
Facts of the Case
The facts of the case showed that two drivers were each charged with two counts of driving under the influence (“DUI”). Count one alleged a violation of A.R.S. § 28–1381(A)(1), which prohibits a person from driving a vehicle in Arizona “[w]hile under the influence of … any drug … if the person is impaired to the slightest degree.” Count two alleged a violation of § 28–1381(A)(3), which prohibits driving a vehicle “[w]hile there is any drug defined in § 13–3401 or its metabolite in the person’s body.” Cannabis (marijuana) is a drug defined in A.R.S. § 13–3401(4).
In each case the driver submitted to a blood test that showed the driver had marijuana and its impairing metabolite in his or her body. The drivers also stipulated to the fact that they “had marijuana in their bodies while driving (blood tests revealed both THC and its impairing metabolite hydroxy-THC) and their failure to offer any evidence that the concentrations were insufficient to cause impairment.” Instead, the only evidence they offered was their respective registry identification cards into evidence.
Before trial, the municipal court in Maricopa County denied the driver’s motion to present evidence at trial that the driver held an out-of-state-issued medical marijuana card. The Court also granted the State’s motion in limine to preclude evidence that the driver held an out-of-state-issued medical marijuana card.
Neither driver tried to introduce at trial any evidence other than their respective medical marijuana cards.
Each was convicted of the § 28–1381(A)(3) charge, which prohibits driving a vehicle “[w]hile there is any drug defined in § 13–3401 or its metabolite in the person’s body.”
History of the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA)
The Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) was passed by voters in Arizona in 2010. The provisions of the AMMA were codified as A.R.S. §§ 36–2801–2819 which allows a person who has been diagnosed by a physician as having a debilitating medical condition to apply for a card identifying the holder as a registered qualifying patient. After becoming a registered qualifying patient, the person may possess and use limited amounts of marijuana for medical reasons.
The AMMA broadly immunizes the patient from prosecution for using medical marijuana consistent with the Act. The AMMA broadly immunizes registered qualifying patients for their medical use of marijuana, providing:
A registered qualifying patient … is not subject to arrest, prosecution or penalty in any manner, or denial of any right or privilege, including any civil penalty or disciplinary action by a court or occupational or professional licensing board or bureau: (1) For the registered qualifying patient’s medical use of marijuana pursuant to this chapter, if the registered qualifying patient does not possess more than the allowable amount of marijuana. (A.R.S. § 36–2811(B)(1)).
The Court noted that the grant of immunity is not absolute. The Court noted that the AMMA does not prohibit prosecutions for operating a motor vehicle or water vessel while under the influence of marijuana under A.R.S. § 36–2802(D). However, in those cases, “a registered qualifying patient shall not be considered to be under the influence of marijuana solely because of the presence of metabolites or components of marijuana that appear in insufficient concentration to cause impairment.”
On the other hand, Arizona’s DUI laws identify “separate offenses for driving while a person is under the influence of marijuana and ‘impaired to the slightest degree,’ A.R.S. § 28–1381(A)(1), and driving while there is marijuana or its metabolite ‘in the person’s body.’ § 28–1381(A)(3).”
Therefore, an § 28–1381(A)(3) violation, unlike an (A)(1) violation, does not require the state to prove that the defendant was in fact impaired while driving or in control of a vehicle.
The Court also noted that (A)(1) and (A)(3) offenses for DUI also differ with respect to possible defenses. The Court noted that this was the first case in which the Supreme Court was called upon to resolve how the AMMA affects (A)(3) prosecutions.
The court noted that “Section 36–2802(D) does not say that registered qualifying patients cannot be prosecuted for (A)(3) violations. Instead, it provides that such patients, who use marijuana ‘as authorized’ by the AMMA, id. § 36–2802(E), cannot “be considered to be under the influence of marijuana solely because of the presence of metabolites or components of marijuana that appear in insufficient concentration to cause impairment.” Id. § 36–2802(D) (emphasis added).”
The Affirmative Marijuana AMMA Defense in a DUI Case
In setting forth the parameters of the Affirmative Marijuana AMMA Defense in a DUI Case the court noted that:
Section 36–2802(D), rather than § 28–1381(D), defines the affirmative defense available to a registered qualifying patient to an (A)(3) charge. If their use of marijuana is authorized by § 36–2802(D), such patients cannot be deemed to be under the influence—and thus cannot be convicted under (A)(3)—based solely on concentrations of marijuana or its metabolite insufficient to cause impairment.
Possession of a registry card creates a presumption that a qualifying patient is engaged in the use of marijuana pursuant to the AMMA, so long as the patient does not possess more than the permitted quantity of marijuana. A.R.S. § 36–2811(A)(1). That presumption is subject to rebuttal as provided under § 36–2811(2).
A qualifying patient may be convicted of an (A)(3) violation if the state proves beyond a reasonable doubt that the patient, while driving or in control of a vehicle, had marijuana or its impairing metabolite in the patient’s body. The patient may establish an affirmative defense to such a charge by showing that his or her use was authorized by the AMMA—which is subject to the rebuttable presumption under § 36–2811(2)—and that the marijuana or its metabolite was in a concentration insufficient to cause impairment.
The patient bears the burden of proof on the latter point by a preponderance of the evidence, as with other affirmative defenses. See A.R.S. § 13–205 (“[A] defendant shall prove any affirmative defense raised by a preponderance of the evidence.”).
Problems with Assigning the Patient the Burden of Showing Lack of Impairment
By limiting the defense to an affirmative defense, the Court essentially assigned to qualifying patients “the burden of showing that they did not have marijuana concentrations sufficient to cause impairment….” As a practical matter, this is a difficult task because there is no commonly accepted threshold for identifying marijuana concentrations sufficient to cause impairment. In fact, the courts in Arizona have previously explained that there are “no generally applicable concentration that can be identified as an indicator of impairment for illegal drugs.” Cf. State ex rel. Montgomery v. Harris (Shilgevorkyan), 234 Ariz. 343, 347 ¶ 24, 322 P.3d 160, 164 (2014).
The Court, nevertheless, decided that the “risk of uncertainty in this regard should fall on the patients, who generally know or should know if they are impaired and can control when they drive, rather than on the members of the public whom they encounter on our streets.”
The Court ultimately noted that the drivers in the case before them had made no effort to show that the marijuana in their bodies was in an insufficient concentration to cause impairment. Instead, they argued that the AMMA categorically barred the (A)(3) charge. As such, the only evidence they offered was their respective registry identification cards into evidence. The court noted that evidence of possession of a registry card would generally be admissible in an (A)(3) prosecution to invoke the presumption that the patient was using marijuana pursuant to the AMMA, but it does not suffice to establish the § 36–2802(D) affirmative defense. Therefore, any error by the trial court in excluding evidence of the registry cards was harmless under the particular facts of that case.
The Court found that instead of “shielding registered qualifying patients from any prosecution under A.R.S. § 28–1381(A)(3), the AMMA affords an affirmative defense for those patients who can show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the concentration of marijuana or its impairing metabolite in their bodies was insufficient to cause impairment.”
Ultimately, the drivers’ convictions were upheld. But the decision at least provides a road map to other people in a similar position to have their Arizona or out-of-state-issued medical marijuana registry identification cards into evidence or prove other evidence of its existence. The decision would also allow the driver to present the affirmative defense of showing, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the concentration of marijuana or its impairing metabolite in their bodies was insufficient to cause impairment.
Arizona Supreme Court Rules on Medical Marijuana in DUI Cases — Visit The Arizona Republic to find an article by Michael Kiefer and Yvonne Wingett Sanchez which was published on November 20, 2015. The article discusses the new affirmative defense announced by the Arizona Supreme Court on Friday.
Legally Speaking: Change in Arizona DUI law gives medical marijuana holders fair shake — Article published by Monica Lindstrom on November 20, 2015 about the Supreme Court’s recent decision to add an affirmative defense to Arizona’s DUI laws on Friday for qualified card holder under the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act.
Arizona Drugged Driving DUI — Visit the website for the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws to learn more about the so-called drugged driving laws in Arizona including affirmative defenses, implied consent, penalties, sobriety checkpoints, per se drugged driving laws and case law.
If you were charged with DUI involving a blood test showing the presence of THC and/or its impairing metabolite hydroxy-THC, then contact an experienced criminal defense attorney at the Law Office of James Novak. Call us today to discuss your case and the best ways to present the Affirmative Marijuana AMMA Defense in your case.
Four defenses used to challenge flakka and other synthetic drug charges in Arizona; laws, penalties; and what you need to know about Flakka.
Each day we are learning more about the deadly effects of the new street drug “flakka” – a drug described as being so dangerous, that even dealers and those suffering from drug addictions are afraid to use it.
The DEA reported an alarming 780 percent increase in cases over the last three years, largely due to its affordability and accessibility.
Now many questions are being raised about the drug’s legality, as well as other synthetic drugs of its kind.
Among many other impacts, flakka, bath salts, and other synthetics are changing the face of state and federal drug legislation and case laws setting precedents.
This article focuses on drug laws, criminal penalties, criminal defenses that apply flakka and other synthetic drugs.
It will also provide important facts and resources about “flakka”.
Laws that Apply to Flakka and other Synthetic Drugs in Arizona
Flakka is unlawful in Arizona. It is both a Controlled Substance and a Dangerous Drug, which carries the most severe penalties.
Synthetic drug manufactures and sellers, are presenting unique challenges to police, prosecution, and state officials making it difficult to prosecute synthetic drug offenses.
This is due to the fact that synthetic drugs, including flakka, are continually evolving in their ingredients.
New chemicals and substances are being introduced in to their mixtures faster than laws can be enacted to ban them.
After several legislative changes, over recent years, the Legislature unanimously passed House Bill 2327 in 2013. This bill added the alpha-PVP, which is the main active ingredient in flakka, to Schedule I of the state’s Controlled Substances Act to the Arizona Drug Laws, those drugs and substances regarded as being the most dangerous.
The bill also banned all synthetic versions of marijuana cocaine and ecstasy, labeling them as “Dangerous Drugs” defined under A.RS § 13 – 3407.
Defenses for Flakka and Synthetic Drug Charges – Lack of Knowledge; Mistake of Fact; Mistake of Law and Constitutional Violations
While many defenses exist to challenge drug charges in Arizona, we will focus on three common defenses, and one recent uncommon defense heard in the United States Supreme Court recently.
The four defenses that will be discussed are:
- Lack of Knowledge;
- Mistake of Fact;
- Mistake of Law; and
- Constitutional Violations
Lack of Knowledge
Under A.R.S. 13-3407, a person may be in violation of the dangerous drug laws if they knowingly possess, use, manufacture, transport, offer to transport for sale, sell, or distribute dangerous drugs.
As provided under Arizona Law A.R.S. 13-202 the word “knowingly’ expressly provides a mental state or culpability which must exist in order for a person to be prosecuted for a drug crimes offense.
Not all criminal laws contain this language. For example this language is not included in the Arizona DUI laws.
With that, the burden rests with the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant had knowledge that they were using or possessed an illegal drug.
There are a number of situations where “Lack of Knowledge” may apply. In one example, a person borrows a friend’s car to go to work and is stopped by police for speeding.
During the traffic stop the police see the drugs which appear to be cocaine or flakka, on the back seat floorboard of the borrowed vehicle. The driver is then arrested for possession of a dangerous drug.
The driver did not have knowledge that the drugs were in the back seat when he borrowed it from his friend.
In this scenario, the suspect could utilize this defense. They would need to provide a showing that they did not know the drugs were there, and no reasonable person would not, or should have known under the same circumstances.
Mistake of Fact
Mistake of fact exists when a person honestly and genuinely believes they are not committing a crime, when they engage in an offense.
Thus, a person acknowledges that they carried out an act, but did so under purely innocent circumstances.
One example of the applicability of this defense is if a person purchases a dangerous drug, but thought they were making a purchase for candy, a lawful edible substance.
However, what the consumer did not know at the time, was that the manufacturer intentionally disguised or mislabeled an unlawful product such as flakka, bath salts, or other synthetic drugs.
Recently, a Consumer Alert was issued in June 30, 2015 by the Miami-Dade Police Department’s Forensics Services Bureau.
Officials found a variety of substances being sold that resembled a variety of popular candy sold in retail stores. Officials later discovered the candy was coated or laced with flakka, and its derivatives.
Thus, if a person unknowingly purchased the product that any prudent person would have reasonably thought was a lawful edible, this is both a material and mistaken fact.
Such circumstances would present a valid criminal defense, in this case.
Search and Seizure Law Violations
Drug charges are often challenged as a result of Constitutional Rights violations.
Suspects have afforded by both the state and federal constitution.
One of the most common Constitutional challenges in drug defense cases is for violations of “search and seizure laws.’’
If material evidence is obtained by police unlawfully, a motion can be filed with the court to suppress the evidence.
An example of an unlawful search and seizure would result, if evidence was obtained by police without a valid search warrant.
If the court agrees, the evidence will then be inadmissible against the defendant for prosecution.
There are exceptions under A.R.S. 13-3925. If one does not apply, then generally suppression of material evidence leads to dismissal of the charges, or other favorable outcome in the case.
Some exceptions include:
- Exigent circumstances;
- Protective sweeps;
- Searches incidental to arrest; or
- Consent by the suspect to search home or property
In a recent Arizona Supreme Court case the Justices analyzed the Arizona statutes relating to privacy rights.
In their ruling, the high court justices acknowledged that based on the language in the Arizona statutes, the state of Arizona affords it residence more privacy than the Federal laws.
The Arizona Supreme Court also reaffirmed that a higher standard of privacy protections exist for a person in their home or residence over their vehicle.
Mistake of Law
Under A.R.S. 13-204 the Arizona laws basically states that a mistaken belief of the law does not relieve a person of criminal liability unless it negates or contradicts a culpable mental state.
Under Arizona law, having a culpable mental state means to act intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence in committing an offense.
Generally, the lack of knowledge of the law usually is not a valid defense. But successful challenges in a synthetic drug case in the US Supreme Court, contradicted that rule.
In a landmark case June 18, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down a landmark ruling involving mistake of law dealing with synthetic drugs.
In McFadden v. United States, the defendant successfully argued that he did not know the “bath salts” he was distributing were regulated as an Analogue Drugs under the Federal Controlled Analogue Enforcement Act.
As a result, the U.S. Supreme Court vacated and remanded the two lower court decisions on the grounds that the Analogue Act requires the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant knew he was distributing a Controlled Substance under the Act.
The complicated mixtures of synthetics, ever changing laws to ban them, and mistaken understanding of whether or not they were lawful or unlawful, impacted the US Supreme Court Decision in this case.
The High Court opined that “A defendant needs to know more than the identity of the substance… [He] needs to know that the substance is controlled.”
While the full impact of ruling on Arizona Laws on future cases has not yet played out, it may arise as an effective defense.
10 Sentencing Considerations – Classifications – Penalties
The classification of an offense dictates the range of penalties for drug charges, and penalties.
Arizona Revised Statutes § 13-3401(6)(c)(iii) defines alpha-PVP as a “dangerous drug.” A person convicted of a crime involving a dangerous drug can face increased penalties us ARS § 13-3407.
Ranges of penalties exist within each Classification. The Judge has the discretion of providing mitigated, presumptive, or aggravated sentencing within those ranges.
- First-time or repeat offense;
- Quantity of the drug found;
- Under or over the Statutory Threshold Amount
- Intended Purpose (use v. sale)
- Age of the defendant;
- Prior criminal history;
- Eligibility for Drug Court Program;
- Other Drugs found in possession;
- Other crimes committed during the same incident
- Whether or not a firearm or other deadly weapon was involved
Classifications for Dangerous Drugs A.R.S § 13- 3407 (B)
- Possession or use Class 4;
- Possession of chemicals, and/or equipment used for making narcotic drugs Class 3 Felony:
- Administration Class 3 Felony:
- Possession of equipment, and/or chemicals Class 3;
- Intent to sell or sales of the dangerous drug Class 2;
- Transfer of the drug, or offer to transfer for the purposes of selling Class 2.
The mere knowing possession of a dangerous drug is a class 4 felony. Conviction can lead to a presumptive sentence of 18 months to three years in prison, with a presumptive sentence of 2.5 years, along with a fine of $1,000 or up to three times the value of the possessed substance with a maximum fine of $150,000.
If a person is accused of possessing flakka for the purpose of sale, transporting flakka for sale or import into the state or manufacturing flakka, they face class 2 felony charges. The sentence for these offenses is a prison sentence of seven to 21 years, with a presumptive sentence of 10.5 years.
Any drug-related conviction can also have profound collateral consequences. You may be ineligible for financial aid for school. You will have a permanent criminal record that could impede any future job search.
In addition, to other penalties, Drug Treatment programs are mandatory for first time, and repeat offenses.
What is Flakka?
Put simply, flakka is a synthetic version of cocaine, but far more dangerous. It follows “bath salts” as the next generation of synthetic drugs.
You may also have also heard it referred to as “Gravel,” “$5.00 Insanity,” “powered psychosis,” “mind melt,” or “$5.00 intensity.
It can be used through means of vapor, injection, smoking or ingesting in pill or other edible form.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, “vaping” the drug will send the drug into the bloodstream very quickly and can rapidly cause overdose.
One of the reasons it is considered deadly, is because the dosage is hard to control. As a result, there is a fine between achieving the desired “high” and death.
Synthetic drugs presently fall into two categories: synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones. Synthetic cannabinoids include Spice and K2, and are purportedly intended mimic the effects of ingesting marijuana. Much observation has shown that the actual result of ingesting these synthetic cannabinoids is far different than those of smoking marijuana, though.
Flakka, sometimes called “gravel,” is categorized as a synthetic cathinone. Cathinones are stimulants, often called “uppers,” including cocaine and methamphetamine. A synthetic cathinone, therefore, is intended to simulate the effects of ingesting one of these stimulants. Substances identified as “bath salts” are often considered synthetic cathinones.
The chemical name for the drug called flakka is alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP).
What $5.00 a hit really buys you: Adverse effects of flakka
As a synthetic cathinone, flakka is intended to act as a stimulant: To speed up the heartrate, making the user more awake.
The actual effects of ingesting the substance, however, are very hard to predict.
Flakka is produced using chemicals, and the exact chemicals may vary. Alpha-PVP, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is intended to cause and “excited delirium.” Reported effects have included:
- Heart failure
- Mental disturbances. short and long term
- Kidney Failure
- Severe Hallucinations
- Bizarre behavior
- Violent aggression
- Screaming, struggling, flailing
- Extreme rise in body temperature
- Dehydration due to extreme body temperatures and overactive behavior
Serious, and sometimes fatal injuries indirect injuries which include but are not limited to suicide, homicide, self-inflicted wounds, injuries or fatalities resulting from police attempting to subdue the suspect; suspects running out in front of speeding vehicles, including trains.
Some have reported that the drug gives them the false impression that they possess “super human strength”. This is more likely a combination of its hallucinogenic quality coupled with its tendency to lead to violent behavior.
Flakka incidents frequently involve nudity because the spike in body temperature can lead a judgment-impaired person to strip their clothing off, and the inability to reduce their body temperature.
However, the combination of effects on the body, in addition to their extremely unpredictable nature, is very dangerous, both to the user and to others.
A flakka user in Florida was charged with child neglect after she blacked out and abandoned her one-year-old on the street.
In addition to the inherent health risks of the drug, use can result in harm or death when law enforcement officers are called on the scene to subdue a violent, or dangerous behavior while under the influence of Flakka.
Failure of the suspect to obey police commands or orders to retreat, will result in the suspect being tased, or fatally wounded. Police have been finding it necessary to use deadly force and are unable to subdue a suspect in an effort to protect public safety.
Synthetic Drug Defense Lawyer Mesa, AZ
Arrests are being made for use and possession of unlawful synthetic drugs, throughout the country, and penalties are severe.
If you are arrested and alleged to be in possession of flakka or any other synthetic drug, it is important to realize that you have not been convicted.
It is important not give up hope. You should never plead guilty before talking to an experienced drug crimes defense attorney to discuss your charges, and defense op tions.
There may be defenses applicable to the circumstances of your cas0 e that may be used to obtain a favorable outcome on your behalf.
Options like Drug Court may be available, and in some cases are mandatory depending on the charges.
If a defendant is eligible, they may qualify for a drug treatment program as an alternative to more harsh sentencing, longer prison terms, or reduction of felony charges to a misdemeanor.
An experienced criminal defense attorney will protect your rights, defend your charges, and determine the best defense strategies, and present your case in an effort to obtain the best possible outcome on your behalf.
A former prosecutor, James E. Novak understands both sides of the criminal courtroom. He puts his experience to work for those accused of drug offenses and other crimes in Maricopa County, including Tempe, Mesa, Scottsdale, Phoenix, Chandler and Gilbert.
If you have been arrested for any crime involving flakka or synthetic drugs, contact James Novak today to schedule a free initial consultation.
Other Articles of Interest:
♦ Little-known facts revealed, and why they matter.♦
“Underage Drinkers at Highest Risk of Fatal Accidents, Arrests – New Studies Find Links between Youth Alcohol Abuse, Learning Disabilities and Long-Term Brain Impairments.”
Over the last decade the National Safety Council (NSC), and The National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA) have reported Independence day and the New Year Holiday as being the deadliest driving days of the year.
These conclusions were based on the number of impaired driving crashes, and alcohol related fatalities.
Last year in Arizona, the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety (AGOHS) reported a sharp increase in the number of DUI arrests over the July 4th holiday last year from the preceding year.
Particularly during the summer months and around the holidays, it is easy for drinkers to lose track of how much they are drinking.
This is particularly true for teenagers, adolescents, and underage drinkers.
Consequences of youth drinking have been largely understood.
We are now learning about new research which suggests links between adolescent alcohol abuse and interruptions during the brain developmental process.
This intrusion on the brain’s development is said to be responsible for causing some learning disabilities, and long term brain dysfunctions.
We will discuss this research in more detail, as well as the following topics as we focus on Underage Age Drinking Safety, Prevention, and Criminal Defense:
- Underage DUI and drug arrest statistics from AZ Governor’s Office of Highway Safety;
- Underage DUI laws, penalties and consequences;
- Consequences of youth drinking from the National Centers for Disease Control;
- Youth Drinking Prevention Tips from the Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration;
- Safety tips from the Arizona Department of Highway Safety;
- The importance of criminal defense for charges.
Increase in Underage DUI and Drugs Arrests
On June 18, 2015, the Arizona Governor’s Office of Highway Safety (AGOHS) announced that our State was named as the harshest state in the Country in penalizing DUI convictions, based on a study conducted by an independent finance company.
Penalties include jail sentencing and extended use of ignition interlock devices on vehicles as well as other criminal and civil punishments. This is the case even for first time DUI charges.
In an effort to keep impaired or drunk drivers off the road, Arizona drivers can expect increased presence, DUI Checkpoints, and patrols over the Independence Day holiday weekend this year.
According to AGOHS, the number of DUI arrests statewide increased from 421 in 2013 to 534 in 2014 on the Fourth of July holiday.
The state agency attributed the increase in arrests to an increase in the number of officers on the road. Unstated was the fact that Fourth of July occurred on a Friday.
A typical weekend night will have more arrests that a typical weekday night. This year, the Fourth similarly falls on a Saturday.
In addition to an overall increase in the number of arrests, last year was also notable for a significant increase in two statistics: The number of underage DUIs and the number of drug-related DUIs. The former statistic went up 27 percent, and the latter went up a staggering 74 percent.
No Tolerance for Underage DUI
In Arizona, a person 21 or older who is not operating a commercial vehicle may face DUI charges if accused of being in actual physical control of a vehicle with a blood-alcohol content of 0.08 or higher, or if he or she is under the influence of an intoxicating substance, drug or vapor to even the slightest degree.
A person younger than 21, the legal age at which a person may purchase and consume alcohol, may face DUI charges if there is ANY alcohol in his or her blood or breath. A 20-year-old could be arrested and convicted if his or her BAC was 0.01, regardless of whether he or she was under the influence of the alcohol to the point that his or her faculties were impaired.
The law, Arizona Revised Statutes § 4-244, lowers the BAC at which a person is considered legally impaired for a person under 21, but it does not lower the punishment. An underage person convicted for the first time of a DUI with a BAC less than 0.10 may face penalties including:
- A $250 or more fine,
- Assessment of $500 to be deposited in the prison construction and operations fund,
- Assessment of $500 to be deposited in the public safety equipment fund,
- Court costs,
- Installation of an ignition interlock device for at least one year,
- Community restitution,
- Alcohol or drug screening,
- Alcohol or drug education or treatment program,
- A driver’s license suspension for 90 days, and/or
- A criminal record.
A BAC of 0.10 could result in a charge of extreme DUI, with heightened penalties. For a BAC at or above 0.15, the charges could be for super extreme DUI.
Subsequent offenses also carry increasing penalties. A third or subsequent drunk driving charge, for example, is a felony.
No Tolerance for Drugs in the System While Driving
Under Arizona Revised Statutes § 28-1381, a person may face criminal charges if accused of being in actual physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of a controlled substance or if there is any controlled substance or any metabolite of a controlled substance in their body.
This is a strict approach that means that any lingering metabolites could lead to a person being charged with DUI.
Controlled substances can take days or even weeks after use to disappear from blood or urine tests (DUI urine tests are rare, but blood tests are routinely given).
They can last long after the effects on a person’s faculties have worn off.
For example, a person who took a prescription painkiller – prescription drugs are controlled substances – in the morning may have stopped feeling its effects hours later.
However, the metabolite may still be in the system, and that person may be arrested when a blood test shows positive results.
This is particularly important for the many people who utilize Arizona’s medical marijuana law. Marijuana metabolites stay in the blood much longer than most other controlled substances.
Regular users commonly show positive drug test results for 10 days or more after last use.
It does not matter that the person is legally using the substance. He or she will still face DUI charges.
It is not clear why there was such a spike in drug-related DUIs last year. However, Arizona law enforcement has made strides in their Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) program.
An officer trained as a DRE will look for signs that a person is under the influence of a controlled substance.
He or she can testify in court as evidence of intoxication or as evidence for reasonable suspicion or probable cause.
A person convicted of a drug-related DUI will face the same penalties listed above for a person charged with a DUI with a BAC under 0.10.
New Studies Reveal Link between Adolescent Drinking and Long Term Brain Damage
The National Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that Alcohol is the number one drug of choice among teens in the USA, and considers alcohol a major health problem among persons under age 21.
Binge drinking is dangerous for adults but even more dangerous for teens. This is because generally their bodily functions and brains are still in a developmental stage.
New studies reveal the alcohol, especially binge drinking can delay maturity, and have life-long adverse impacts on parts of the brain that control learning, memory and cognitive functions.
Researchers say that the brain continues to refine, mature, and develop until a person reaches their mid-twenties.
So the brain abnormalities are the result of alcohol intruding on cells in parts of the brain that have not completed their development.
More independent studies are revealing that teenage binge drinkers are more prone to acquire psychiatric disorders including alcoholism later in life.
Underage non-experienced drinkers or do have not built up a tolerance to alcohol are more likely to consume more alcohol than adults during one session.
As non-experienced drinkers they are often not capable of recognizing when they’ve had enough, and need to stop drinking.
Other Consequences of Underage Drinking
We’ve discussed the criminal consequences of underage drinking, the auto accident risks.
New studies are now being reported that reveal a connection between alcohol use, and binge drinking on the brain, and cognitive functions.
According to the CDC youth drinking can also lead to or cause other adverse consequences including but not limited to the following:
- Alcohol poisoning in the case of binge drinking which can result in coma or death;
- Acute, or long term medical conditions;
- Increased risks of suicide;
- Propensity to commit other crimes such as physical assault, sexual assault, or other violent crimes including homicide;
- Suffer or cause other intentional injuries such as drowning, falling, burns;
- Use or abuse of other illegal drugs;
- Suffering from other acute and chronic illnesses due to alcohol;
- Unplanned pregnancies or acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases;
- Behavioral, educational, social problems at school and domestically;
- Anger, mood changes, confusion, irritability;
According to the CDC, the risks of experiencing these consequences increased when the youth engaged in binge drinking.
For men, binge drinking is defined as having 5 or more drinks within 2 hours. For women it is defined as have 4 alcohol beverages within 2 hours.
How Parents Can Help Prevent Underage Drinking – Safety and Prevention Tips
Below are some tips complied from a variety of resources including Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to help parents address underage alcohol use, and safety:
- Discuss medical hazards, underage drinking and DUI laws; penalties and consequences;
- Be a good role model- If you are going to drink, drink responsibly;
- Welcome discussions and be approachable, and make it easy for them to talk;
- Help your teens to find ways of having fun without alcohol;
- Encourage your teens to be involved in family life, and chores, including taking care of siblings;
- Don’t allow your teens to attend parties where alcohol is being served;
- Give them independence. But set, and enforce clear rules with consequences for violating them;
- Know where your teens are, who they are with, and whether or not alcohol will be served there; Make sure alcohol is not available to them in their home and do not offer it to them;
- Explain the hazards of riding as a passenger in a vehicle with someone who has been drinking, and provide them with alternative options for a sober ride home.
A Message from the Arizona Department of Public Safety to all Drivers
On July 2, 2015 the Arizona Department of Public Safety (DPS) issued a Press Release to announce their increased presence particularly on highways and high collision areas.
Their efforts will focus on highway safety to avoid fatalities, DUI enforcement, and seeking out distracted drivers of those who will be traveling on the roads this weekend.
The Arizona DPS offered these safety tips for those who will be traveling on the roadways:
- “Expect the Unexpected”;
- Keep emergency supplies in your vehicle in the event you find a highway is closed off while in route. The emergency pack should include extra drinking water, snack foods, fully charged cell phones and other emergency supplies;
- Choose someone to be a sober Designated Driver in advance;
- Call 911 to report dangerous driving or behavior to help avoid crashes;
- If your vehicle breaks down call 911 for assistance;
- If you are under age 21 and you plan to drink, plan ahead, and drink responsibly.
The Importance of Criminal Defense for Alcohol Related Charges Tempe AZ
If you are the parent of an underage drinker or driver, and you have never received the call in the middle of the night or early morning hours notifying you that they have been arrested, or worse involved in a DUI accident, you are one of the fortunate ones.
If you have received the call, then you know how traumatic it can be for parents and those arrested.
A criminal conviction can turn a person’s world upside down, jeopardizing the future and freedom.
It is particularly disruptive to underage drinkers who have a need to drive to get to school, work, to sport activities, scholastic activities or other extracurricular activities.
A conviction will adversely impact their eligibility to drive for an extended period. It may also prevent them from qualifying for schools, scholarships, student loans, or employment.
It can also result in loss of existing scholarships, job, driver’s license, active enrollment, or job if they had one at the time of the arrest or conviction.
This is why it is critical to retain a highly skilled and experienced DUI or minor consumption defense attorney to protect their rights and defend their charges.
Without an effective legal advocate a conviction will be swift and severe.
It is crucial that they retain a qualified attorney to protect their interests, and challenge any constitutional rights violations, or weak evidence in their case.
Officers may make mistakes in the cleaning and calibration of the devices, or may make errors in storing or transporting the evidence.
Even if your son or daughter has a DUI test showing alcohol in your system and they are under age or controlled substances if you are of any age, and were arrested in Maricopa County, there is no reason to give up hope.
A flawless process can be critical to prosecutors’ cases, particularly when the results involve a low BAC.
Mistakes in cleaning could easily lead to test result showing a low BAC, such as one used in the prosecution of a person younger than 21.
Likewise, the testimony of DREs can be effectively challenged by a lawyer. Any errors in their judgment can lead to charged being reduced or dismissed.
Generally when evidence is suppressed, it cannot be admitted in court. So suppression of material evidence or unlawful searches can lead to dismissal, or acquittal of charges.
James Novak is a former prosecutor, and dedicated exclusively to providing DUI and criminal defense. He is a highly skilled and effective and represents people of all ages charged with alcohol related crimes.
James Novak believes in second chances, making sure a person’s rights are protected, and that they get the strongest most effective defense available for their charges.
If a loved one or someone you know has been arrested for alcohol related crimes or other criminal offenses, contact James Novak, at The Law Office of James E. Novak today for a free consultation.
James Novak services clients who have received charges in Phoenix, Tempe, Mesa, Scottsdale, Chandler, or Gilbert, AZ.
Additional Articles of Interest:
“Though non-criminal explanations for a driver’s conduct might exist, there is no additional requirement [under the Fourth Amendment] that the investigating officer expressly rule them out.”
Many criminal cases start with a traffic stop by police. However, police and law enforcement officers are not allowed to simply pull drivers over arbitrarily. To make a stop, police must have reasonable suspicion that a crime has occurred or is in progress. In a recent Arizona Supreme Court decision the Justices examined the reasonable suspicion standard. The ruling in the case, released June 4, 2015, found that “reasonable suspicion” does not entail officers being required to eliminate possible innocent explanations for suspicious behavior.
Overview and Case Summary
In this case, sheriff’s deputies testified that they encountered the suspect while he was in his truck. The truck was stopped at a stop sign at the intersection of an adjoining street where the deputies were approaching. As they passed the suspects vehicle, one of the deputies observed the suspect “flailing is arms” with closed fists at the passenger sitting in the front seat of the truck.
The Deputy alerted his partner that an assault appeared to be occurring. As a result they returned to the scene to conduct an investigative stop.
The resulting police traffic stop yielded arrests for possession of marijuana, possession of drug paraphernalia and aggravated driving under the influence.
During cross-examination the deputy testified, that although it appeared the suspect was punching the passenger, the deputy acknowledged that he did not actually see the contact or the passenger actually being struck.
The defense filed a motion to suppress the evidence of the “arm movements” that police reported was the reason for the stop.
The trial court denied the defendant’s motion to suppress the evidence. It found that although the defendant’s arm movements alone may not have constituted criminal activity, the facts clearly justified the Deputies’ need to stop and investigate.
On Appeal, the Arizona Appeals Court agreed with the trial court’s rejection to dismiss the evidence, and cited the lower court’s rulings, accepting the police officer’s demonstrated justification for the stop.
The Appeals Court also rejected the argument that the Fourth Amendment requires the police officer in every stop, to show that they took steps to rule out possibilities that the suspect’s conduct was innocent.
The Defendant appealed the denial of suppression of evidence to the Arizona Supreme Court, who agreed to hear the case since it involved recurring cases, and was of statewide importance.
In reviewing the case the AZ Supreme Court recognized that police can stop and detain a person briefly with reasonable suspicion, which requires only a minimal level of objective justification to suspect a crime or suspicious activity is in progress or has occurred.
The Court recognized that “reasonable suspicion’ is more of a “commonsense, nontechnical conception”.
To determine whether an officer has reasonable suspicion for the stop is based on the “totality of the circumstances” or the “whole picture.” And that from that from the whole picture, officers are required only to obtain a particularized and objective basis to stop someone because they suspect a crime is in progress.
The defendant in this case argued that the officers must consider all factors in a manner that would eliminate most innocent drivers – essentially that officers must take into account any reason for which the suspect may have been engaging in actions that could have been or were lawful.
The Court rejected that argument, and agreed with both the trial court and the court of appeals there is no “additional requirement” under the Fourth Amendment for police to testify that they went through processes that would serve to eliminate innocent conduct by the suspect.
The Supreme Court affirmed both the trial and Appeals court’s decision. They denied the defendant’s motion to suppress the evidence of the reason for the stop, concluding that the stop did not violate the suspects Fourth Amendment Rights.
Analysis of “Particularized Suspicion” and the Reasonableness Standard
To avoid arbitrary stops, higher courts have ruled that the suspicion justifying the stop must be sufficiently particularized – that is, that they be specific and distinct to that particular suspect.
Reasonable suspicion cannot be based on a “hunch” or generalizations. For instance, in State v. Gonzalez-Gutierrez, the Arizona Supreme Court ruled that the fact that a driver was glancing around, gripping his steering wheel tightly and scratching his head did not constitute reasonable suspicion to suspect an immigration violation.
Similarly, it is not enough for an officer to pull a driver over on suspicion of DUI because he or she was leaving an area of town with many bars at 2 a.m.
The officer must have witnessed something like weaving between lanes that would make a reasonable person believe drunk driving was afoot.
In this case, however, the AZ Supreme Court reasoned that if an officer sees activities that are atypical, the standard a court should use is whether the totality of the circumstances could indicate to a reasonable person that criminal activity was taking place.
The fact that most non-criminal activity does not appear suspicious and that the officer must meet this particularized suspicion standard, eliminates stops of too many innocent people.
The Court applied the standard of whether the particular observations of the officers in this case led to a reasonable suspicion that an assault was occurring.
The Court decided this reasonableness standard did not require that officers eliminate the possibility of innocent activity.
It therefore decided that police were within their powers when they pulled the vehicle over, and the officers were not in violation of the suspect’s Fourth Amendment Rights.
Impacts of the Ruling on Arizona Drivers
The impact on this case seemingly liberalizes or broadens law enforcement’s authority to make a stop for reasonable suspicion. However, in effect it does not grant police more power to make a stop.
It simply served to discharge police of the imposition of ruling out innocent conduct in defense of the suspect. A person’s Fourth Amendment Rights were not diminished.
However, drivers should be aware of their rights, in order to protect them. A driver can jeopardize their own rights and defenses by not being aware of them.
Therefore, it is important to at least be familiar with them, to avoid waiving them unintentionally. This will help protect defenses in the case of constitutional rights violations such as intrusive police actions.
Your Rights at a Police Stop in Arizona
You have a right to not answer an officer’s questions. While you should hand over your driver’s license and insurance information, you do not have to answer questions about where you’ve been, where you’re going, if you’d had anything to drink or any other questions.
Refusing to answer does not give officers probable cause to arrest you. A word of caution however, is that if you decline to answer questions, you should always let the officer know of your intentions invoke your rights.
Failure to do this may give the officer a perception that you are being uncooperative. Let them know that your intention is to cooperate by answering necessary information generally expected to be asked at a routine traffic stop. These might include answering routine questions about license plates, mechanical problems (for example, brake light out) related to vehicle registration, driver’s license, identity and residence. But that you wish to invoke your right to remain silent with regard to any other questions as a constitutional protection, without your attorney present.
You have a right to refuse requests to search your vehicle. Officers may ask to look in your trunk, in your locked glove compartment and other parts of the car in which you have a reasonable expectation of privacy. They may do so only with your consent or with probable cause. Refusing consent does not give them probable cause.
You have a right to refuse a DUI test, unless police properly obtain a warrant. This includes field sobriety tests, breath tests, blood tests and urine tests. As a result of your refusal, the state will suspend your license for 12 months to two years. However, you can fight the license suspension with the assistance of an attorney.
You also have a right against being stopped indefinitely. If allegedly pulling you over for a traffic violation, police can only detain you for long enough to handle the citation and run your information for warrants. It is your right to ask “Is this stop over?” once you have been handed the citation. If they answer no, they must be detaining you for some other reason.
You should be polite and respectful to law enforcement officers. However, that does not mean your rights can be trampled.
Mesa Defense Attorney for DUI, Drug Charges
Aside from traffic violations, the most common criminal charges that arise out of traffic stops are DUI offenses and drug charges, both of which resulted in this case study.
The defendant was charged with aggravated DUI. Aggravated DUI is a felony. It is charged when a person is alleged to be driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs and it is his or her third or subsequent DUI within seven years, his or her license was suspended, a child 15 or younger was in the vehicle or an ignition interlock is installed on the driver’s vehicle.
Aggravated DUI convictions result in:
- A minimum of four months in prison (eight months if the charge is the fourth or subsequent offense in seven years);
- Probation for up to 10 years;
- A fine of $750 or more;
- Additional assessment of $250;
- Assessment of $1,500 for the prison construction and operations fund;
- Assessment of $1,500 for the public safety equipment fund;
- Court costs;
- Community restitution;
- Vehicle impoundment;
- License revocation for three years;
- One year with an ignition interlock device installed;
- Mandatory alcohol or drug screening; and
- Mandatory alcohol or drug education or treatment program.
Drug charges often arise out of traffic stops when people are pulled over for other reasons, such as a traffic violation, and are accused of possessing drugs. In Evans, the defendant was charged with marijuana possession and paraphernalia possession. Possession of less than two pounds of marijuana is a class 6 felony, punishable by a presumptive sentence of one year in jail. Any more can result in significantly longer sentences.
The defendant was also charged with possession of paraphernalia. Paraphernalia is defined as anything that a person can use to plant, cultivate, ingest or manufacture drugs, among other activities. Possession is a class 6 felony, punishable by a presumptive jail term of one year.
If you have been arrested for any charge after being pulled over in Maricopa County, it is important that you contact a defense attorney right away. Your attorney can challenge whether police had reasonable suspicion among other issues and seek to get your charged reduced or dismissed.
James E. Novak is an experienced criminal defense lawyer and former Maricopa County prosecutor. Contact the Law Office of James E. Novak today for a free consultation to discuss your matter and defense options.
“Arizona DUI enforcement, Impaired Driving Facts and Statistics, Criminal Defense for DUI Charges”
Phoenix and East Valley DUI Enforcement over Memorial Day Weekend
The Arizona Department of Highway Safety (DPS) announced its plans to conduct a statewide highway-safety campaign.
The “Safety Team” is composed of Arizona DPS, the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety (GOHS), and Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT).
They will combine resources this Memorial Day weekend to look for impaired, distracted, or other dangerous drivers.
The Campaign is scheduled to begin Friday May 22, at 12 p.m. and end Monday evening, May 25th.
Phoenix Metro and East Valley DUI Task Force have increased law enforcement staffing to target speeders, impaired, or other unsafe drivers.
Mesa AZ PD also announced its plans to participate in the East Valley DUI Task Force. Their plans include a combination of DUI Saturation Patrols and Sobriety Checkpoint both in the daytime and evening hours.
The Mesa PD vows to employ a zero-tolerance approach to drivers found to be impaired due to alcohol, or drugs as well as drivers and occupants under 21 years of age with alcohol in their system.
Increased Awareness of Alcohol and DUI Safety for Memorial Day Weekend
On Memorial Day Americans pay formal tribute to all military families, veterans, active duty military, and those who have given the ultimate sacrifice in service to our great country.
Many will drive distances, to visit cemeteries and place flags or flowers on the graves of our fallen heroes. There will be parades, USA flags flown at half-mast, and many other Memorial Services.
Often people see Memorial Day as a transition from the spring to summer season, and the beginning of summer holidays and celebrations.
Often these summer celebrations involve the use of alcohol, making it especially dangerous for students engaging in underage drinking, and all drivers on the roads.
Most people are aware that it is illegal to drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs. And they have at least a basic idea of what it means to be legally intoxicated and how to avoid driving while drunk (i.e. no driving after more than two drinks, a belief that is often incorrect). However, there are many things people often do not understand about the laws against drinking and driving.
These misunderstandings can be highlighted on weekends such as Memorial Day. Combining day trips to local hotspots and consuming alcohol without proper planning can result in arrest, injury, and even death. Understanding these misconceptions is the best way to avoid these problems.
Myths #1: Impaired driving arrests don’t happen during the day.
Fact: A common misconception many have is that drunk driving arrests only happen at night – that police only pull people over after the bars close. This misconception is particularly relevant during Memorial Day weekend. Many people in Maricopa County and the surrounding area take advantage of the extra day off to spend time outdoors. For many, that involves drinking, sometimes in long bouts throughout the day, especially if they are spending the day floating on an inner tube on Salt River. For many of these Tempe, Mesa and Phoenix-area residents, the trip home on Bush Highway may result in a DUI arrest – or, worse, an accident.
On any given day, people drive intoxicated during daylight hours. According to statistics published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, most fatal DUI-related crashes do happen between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. However, a very significant share – 38.6 percent – happen during the day, between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. During daylight hours, there is a fatal DUI-related crash somewhere in the nation every 139.5 minutes.
Drinking during a holiday like Memorial Day tends to be more common. Law enforcement in Maricopa County are well aware of people’s Memorial Days habits and can anticipate where high volumes of traffic and impaired drivers might be.
Officers are likely to be well-prepared for the fact that people will be intoxicated earlier in the day than normal, and will be out of the road. If a driver is pulled over or stopped at a checkpoint, the time of day does not matter. The offense becomes worse if the driver was on a family trip and had children in the car. Driving under the influence with a passenger younger than 15 years old is an aggravated DWI, punishable by a minimum jail sentence of 10, 30 or 45 days.
Myths #2: You can drink and drive as long as your BAC is .08% the Legal Limit in Arizona
Fact: It is legal to drive over the age of 21 in Arizona, if your Blood Alcohol Content is under .08%, only if you are not found to be driving “impaired to the slightest degree.” This means you could be well below the legal limit of .08 percent, and still be arrested and prosecuted for DUI or Drug DUI in violation of A.R.S. 28-1381.
Myths #3: Drinking a couple beers an hour won’t lead to a high BAC.
Fact: Another misconception people have is that they will be OK to drive because they believe they are “taking it slow;” drinking beers throughout the day while floating on the river instead of pounding shots. However, a person who has been drinking all day while tubing, rafting or fishing is in danger of having high blood alcohol content (BAC) levels, resulting in greater penalties for an extreme DUI conviction.
An adult can typically process about one drink (12 ounces of beer, three ounces of wine, one ounce of liquor) per hour. In most circumstances, a person will be per se intoxicated with a BAC at or above .08 after consuming about two drinks within an hour. However, when a person drinks alcohol continually over a period of several hours at a rate faster than the body can process – usually about one drink an hour – the alcohol builds up in the body, and the person’s BAC rises.
A person drinking more than one drink per hour over a long period of time can very easily have a BAC exceeding .15, or even .20. A person found guilty of operating a motor vehicle with a BAC at or above .15 but less than .20 is convicted of what is called “extreme DUI.” The average BAC for a person convicted of driving under the influence is .152, placing it in extreme DUI range.
A first-time offender faces at least 30 days in jail. Additional penalties for a first-time extreme DUI offense are a fine of up to $250, and assessment of $250, an assessment of up to $1,000 for the state prison construction fund, an assessment of up to $1,000 for the public safety equipment fund, court costs, completion of a DUI course, community service or restitution, completion of an approved alcohol or drug education program, a 90-day driver’s license suspension, installation of an interlock ignition device for a year.
If the BAC was at or above .20, it is called a “super extreme DUI.” A person convicted of super extreme DUI faces a mandatory 45 consecutive days in jail, along with increased fines and an 18-month ignition interlock installation period.
Myth 4: You are not at risk for DUI if you have a Medical Marijuana Card, and are driving under the influence.
Fact: Though, in some states it is lawful to drive with a certain amount of Marijuana in your system, Arizona law does not include such provisions. In Arizona, a person can be arrested and prosecuted for Drug DUI, even if they are qualified Medical Marijuana card holders, if they are under the influence of Marijuana and driving impaired under A.R.S. 28-1381.
Myth #5: Memorial Day is a time for young people to run wild.
Fact: Many underage people have the misconception that Memorial Day is their day to run wild. Memorial Day weekend for many students marks the end of the school year and start of summer for high school, Junior High, and college students. Unfortunately, many suffer great consequences as a result of poor decisions: According to a study by the Drug Abuse Warning Network, visits by young people to the emergency room due to alcohol use rise 11 percent during Memorial Day weekend, and rise 27 percent for those mixing drugs and alcohol.
Laws against underage drinking are often vigorously enforced during holidays like Memorial Day. Underage consumption is a Class 2 misdemeanor, punishable by fines up to $750, up to four months in jail and a criminal record. Many young people cited for underage drinking are eligible for a diversion program to avoid conviction; an attorney can help the accused be admitted to the program if that is the best option.
As mentioned above, heavy DUI patrols and checkpoints are likely, both day and night during the holiday weekend. A person younger than 21 may face DUI charges if tests detect any alcohol at all in his or her system. Conviction results in a two-year suspension of that underage person’s license.
DUI Defense Lawyer for Mesa AZ
If you have been arrested or a loved one has been arrested for driving under the influence in Tempe, Mesa, Phoenix, Chandler or anywhere in Maricopa County, the best decision you can make is to immediately contact an attorney. Defense attorney defend the rights of the accused and seek the best possible result for their client, including getting charges reduced or dismissed.
It is likely law enforcement will have checkpoints along major roads in and out of recreational areas, such as the Salt River area. A person arrested at a DUI checkpoint may feel their case is hopeless. However, there are strict laws and regulations that govern how these checkpoints may be set up. The failure of police to follow these guidelines can lead to a person’s arrest being thrown out. An attorney will review every step police took to determine any and all mistakes they may have made.
Even if you failed a DUI test, there are still defenses that may exist. Police need reasonable suspicion to pull a person over, and the mere fact that a person is leaving an area where people were consuming alcohol is not sufficient. Additionally, there are significant flaws in DUI tests, and results can be challenged.
If you are arrested you have the right to be represented by an effective attorney, to defend your charges. An arrest is not a conviction. The burden of proof rests on the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that you are guilty. If retained, James Novak, DUI defense attorney can protect your rights and defend your charges. James Novak is a former Maricopa County Prosecutor with a deep knowledge of criminal law and criminal procedure. His experience on both sides of the criminal courtroom is a valuable asset he always puts to work for his clients. He offers a free consultation to anyone accused of a crime, including DUI, in Tempe, Mesa, Scottsdale, Chandler, Gilbert, Phoenix and the surrounding area.
Additional Articles of Interest:
“Probation is a privilege that cannot be denied under AMMA; Penalties & criminal defense for probation violations.”
Nearly 5 years after the passing of Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) the Arizona Supreme Court heard two cases involving denial of the privilege of qualified patients to use marijuana.
The Arizona Supreme Court held that a condition included in terms of their probation that denies Registered Qualified Patients the right to use medical marijuana is invalid and unenforceable.
They agreed to hear the cases on the basis that they involved recurring immunity under AMMA as they applied to plea agreements, and probation terms, had repetitive statewide impacts.
In an effort to narrow this discussion, we will focus on one of those cases.
Arizona Supreme Court Case and Ruling
The defendant pled guilty to marijuana and narcotic charges and sentenced to serve 1.5 years in prison, and three years of probation. In 2010, while the petitioner was still in prison, Arizona voters passed a ballot initiative in the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA).
Among other terms included in the probation conditions, set forth in the plea agreement, at the time of signing, the defendant agreed to obey all laws, and refrain from using or possessing illegal drugs, toxic vapors, or controlled substances, or use or possess any prescription drugs without a valid prescription.”
After the AMMA became law, the petitioner applied for a medical marijuana card, to enable him to use medical marijuana to relieve pain from a “debilitating medical condition” he suffered.
Subsequently he qualified for the program, and obtained a registry card by the Arizona Department of Health (ADHS) for of Medical Marijuana.
While on probation, the petitioner’s probation officer added a new condition to the probation terms. This new condition specified that the probationer could not “possessing or use marijuana for any reason.”
The probationer asked the court to delete the new term due to his immunity under the new AMMA law. The court denied the motion.
The probationer then sought relief filing special action in the AZ Court of Appeals, due to the immunity protections under A.R.S. 36-2811 (B), which state:
“A registered qualifying patient or registered designated caregiver is not subject to arrest, prosecution or penalty in any manner, or denial of any right or privilege.”
The Court of Appeals granted relief and agreed that a qualifying patient cannot be deprived of the privilege of probation, based solely qualified use of Medial Marijuana when it is being used in compliance with the AMMA.
The Arizona Supreme Court affirmed the Appeals Court Decision.
No Imposition of Penalties on Probationers using Marijuana Compliant with AMMA
The State opposed the Appeals Court to remove the condition that prohibited the use of Marijuana in any form by the probationer.
The state argued that imposing this prohibition on one convicted of a drug crime should be allowed, because it was a reasonable and necessary condition.
The court advised that the question before the court was not whether the condition was appropriate, but whether or not it was lawful.
The court agreed that while it the state and can and should be including reasonable and necessary probationary terms, the state is prohibited from including unlawful terms and unenforceable terms citing Coy v. Fields (State) 2001.
The AZ Supreme Court concurred that the AMMA possessed broad immunity provisions, and recognized that there were a few narrow exceptions, but that being a “probationer” was not one of this exceptions. Thus, it was their opinion that immunity applied to the probationer rather than excluding him from it.
“Probation is a privilege; Revoking Probation is a Penalty.”
The court held that probation is a privilege in Arizona, citing State v. Montgomery; and that revoking probation resulting from violations of those terms is a penalty, citing State v. Lyons.
Probation is a privilege because it allows a defendant to elect probation in exchange for a suspension or the imposing of incarceration for a specified term. However, crimes or convictions are eligible for probation.
If probation terms are violated the court may revoke the probation, and reinstate the order for the maximum sentence to be served in jail or prison, therefore, resulting in a penalty.
The Court found that revoking probation after having granted it is a penalty. Imposing this condition, therefore, was in violation of Arizona’s law, the Court ruled, because it would enact a penalty (revoking probation) for using medical marijuana.
The AMMA allows for marijuana use and possession within the confines of the law may not result in a penalty. The Court has found that granting probation to those convicted of crimes is a “privilege.”
If the probationer violated this condition in accordance with his qualified right to use Medical Marijuana under the AMMA, he faced certain consequences of having his probation revoked and likely returning to prison.
The Court also established of course, that use of medical marijuana does not violate Arizona drug law, A.R.S. 13-3408(g) because that statute specifies that narcotic and prescription drugs are prohibited unless “lawfully administered by a health care practitioner,” which implies that the legislation’s intent was to make a distinction between illegal drug use, vs. medicinal use.
The Federal Preemption Debate: The AMMA Does Not Conflict with Federal Law
The Arizona Supreme court ruling addresses the ongoing debate that continues to arise with regard to potential conflict of the legalization of Medical Marijuana in Arizona in light of the Federal prohibition.
The high court acknowledged that Marijuana in any form remains prohibited under the Federal Controlled Substances Act. However, ruled that it does not conflict with Arizona’s AMMA because the federal law does not contain an exception that allows medicinal use of Marijuana.
The State argued that the probation conditions required the probationer to follow all laws, and that “all laws” included Federal Laws. The Arizona Supreme Court rejected this argument, related to the State’s AMMA and Federal Controlled Substances Act.
In response to the State’s challenge, the Court advised that the State would otherwise be correct if the Federal Controlled Substances Act preempted the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act.
The Court provided further clarification of its position by advising that the Federal Controlled Substances Act would preempt or override the AMMA if:
- The Controlled Substances Act explicitly preempted state law; or
- Congress had determined it must exclusively govern the field; or
- The two laws conflict to the extent that it is physically impossible to comply; or
- The state law stands in the way of Congress’s ability to accomplish its intent.
The Court declared that none of those conditions applied here. Further, it cited the fact that:
“Congress itself has specified that the Federal CSA does not expressly preempt state drug laws or exclusively govern the field…There is no such conflict here.”
The court also cited a Michigan case that they felt was persuasive, Ter Beek v. City of Wyoming, (Mich. 2014). In that case, it was ruled that the Medical Marijuana statute “does not prevent federal authorities from enforcing federal law—it merely provides “a limited state-law immunity.”
In that case, the Court opinioned that Congress’s intent was to “to conquer drug abuse and to control the legitimate and illegitimate traffic in controlled substances.” Michigan’s medical marijuana law had a narrow scope applying only medicinal use, and did not conflict with the federal law to the extent that they negated Congress’s purpose in passing the law. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled that the same applied in this state, and therefore the CSA did not preempt the AMMA and a probationer could comply with both.
The State’s Waiver Argument to the Arizona Supreme Court
The State’s final argument was that by entering the plea agreement that stated while the defendant was on probation he agreed to “obey all laws”; it implied that he waived his right to use marijuana under the AMMA.
The Court rejected this argument, on the basis that the defendant could not have knowingly waived a right under the AMMA since it did not exist at the time he entered the plea agreement. The Court also added that even if it did exist at the time, such waiver was not enforceable, because it was unlawful and invalid citing State v. Ferrell, Arizona, 2015.
The Arizona Supreme Court affirmed the opinion of the Arizona Court of Appeals granting relief to the petitioner in the special action.
The Importance of Understanding Your Probation Conditions
We discussed the fact that probation was a privilege. Despite that, you may find that certain terms are unduly burdensome for you to accept in return for suspension of incarceration. It is important that when offered a plea agreement, that you fully understand all the terms of the plea agreement. This applies to both the incarceration terms, but all other conditions, such as payment of fees, restitution, probation, parole, substance abuse counseling and treatment, and all other terms. You should review it carefully. Make sure you understand any waivers, and what they mean, and discuss any concerns or objections you have with your attorney.
Penalties for Probation Violations
“In some cases, the penalties for violating the probation may be more severe than the penalties called for by the underlying offense.”
Probation is one of the most common conditions in a plea agreement and in sentencing for convictions. Penalties for violating probation terms can result in serious consequences.
Judges generally have broad discretion over the penalties. When determining the punishment, they will consider multiple factors. This includes factors such as the nature and severity of the offense as well as whether or not it was a repeat violation of probation terms.
In some cases, the penalties for probation violations may be more severe than the penalties called for by the underlying offense. If it is a first time violation of a less serious nature, your probation officer may hand down a warning only. More severe and repeat violations may include one or more of the following, but are not limited to:
- Reinstatement or original jail or prison sentencing;
- Revocation of probation;
- Imposing additional incarceration, or extension of probation:
- Random alcohol or drug screening;
- Mandatory alcohol or substance abuse counseling and treatment;
- Economic fines;
- Civil or community service;
- New criminal charges:
- Attendance of other rehabilitation programs designed to correct criminal behaviors;
- Adding more stringent terms and conditions known as “intensive probation”.
Generally, the penalty is more serious if the probation violation is similar to the criminal activity for which they were originally convicted. This list is not all encompassing. Penalties may vary based on the nature of the violation of probation.
Criminal Defense for Probation Violations in Mesa AZ
The most important thing you can do following an arrest is to hire an experienced criminal defense attorney to represent you in the matter, to defend the violation or new charges, and make sure your rights are protected.
Your attorney will build a defense strategy heavily based on the condition and circumstances surrounding the violation for which you have been charged. Your attorney may be able to file a motion to have the charges dismissed if your rights were violated, if the evidence is weak, or if other circumstances exist, that do not warrant the charges. They will present your side of the story to the prosecution and the court, and make every effort to have the charges dropped.
If the state refuses to drop the charges, in some case your criminal defense attorney may be able to negotiate more favorable terms that would otherwise have been ordered in the event of a conviction. For example if repeat random blood tests are positive for illicit drugs, your attorney will work closely with the prosecution and court to qualify you for participation in a substance abuse rehabilitation program as an alternative to returning to incarceration.
The burden of proof held by the prosecutor to get a conviction is guilt by “preponderance of the evidence” which is lower than “beyond a reasonable doubt” which makes it easier for the state to get a conviction. This is one reason that it is critical to retain an experienced and competent criminal defense attorney representing you in the charges.
James Novak of the Law Office of James Novak is a former Maricopa County Prosecutor, with a vast amount of experience in litigation and criminal defense. James Novak will protect your rights, defend your charges, and fight for the best possible outcome in your case. DUI and Criminal Defense Attorney James Novak, provides a free consultation for those who have been charged with a crime in Tempe, Mesa, Chandler, Phoenix, Gilbert and Scottsdale Arizona.
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How to identify signs and symptoms of use and abuse; New National CDC statistics; Narcan lifesaving drug legislation; Arizona heroin laws, penalties, and criminal defense.
Tragedy Strikes Home: “This Drug Wants to Kill You”
23-year-old suspect stood before a district court judge after his first arrest the night before, on heroin possession charges.
The young man made an impression on the judge that he would not soon forget.
The suspect was a respectful, polite, and receptive to the judges orders. The judge looked at him and said firmly, “This drug wants to kill you”. He told the suspect that his desk was stacked with death certificates of defendants who died as a result of heroin or other opiates. The youth stood there listening intently with tears in his eyes. The judge assigned him an attorney, ordered random drug testing. The suspect thanked the judge on the way out.
Two days later, the suspect died of a heroin overdose.
When the judge was notified of the defendant’s death, he was badly shaken. “It’s an incredible feeling of powerlessness. We have no mechanism to identify who’s going to keep using. Nothing would indicate this kid had a heroin problem. The new opiate addict is virtually undetectable, until he dies. We’re all frustrated by this and we want people to know what we’re up against. This is the new breed of people afflicted with opiate addiction…I liked this kid. He was a good kid with a bad problem.”
The suspect’s father wanted other parents to hear his family’s grieved message: “Words can’t describe our pain. He was a beautiful, beautiful kid…with everything in the world going for him. No one wants to be a drug addict. So many other families we know have children struggling with the same thing. It’s an epidemic right now. We made a conscious decision that we weren’t going to hide from it. The reality is, someone died yesterday and someone is going to die today. There are parents out there who have no idea…Talk to your kids. Just talk to your kids.”
Today, the parents hope their story would spare other families with such anguish and heartbreak.
Third Heroin Epidemic
The National Centers for Disease Control (CDC) released their most recent national statistics in March 2015. They reported that drug poisoning is still the number one cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Of those, heroin deaths have tripled, illustrating a spike in use, abuse and addiction of the drug, and a marked resurgence of heroin use.
The new CDC statistics revealed that the death rate from heroin overdose nearly quadrupled over 2000 to 2013, from 0.7 deaths for every 100,000 people to 2.7 deaths. According to the report, persons of non-Hispanic white origin between the ages of 18 and 44, are the most vulnerable, with the highest death rate: 7 deaths per 100,000, nearly three times the rate for the population at large. While the Midwest United States had the largest increase in death rate, the West, which includes Arizona, began in 2000 tied with the Northeast for the highest death rate, a number that doubled by the time the study ended in 2013.
Examining the CDC data reveals the possibility that we may be in another epidemic. Many believe that the current spike in heroin deaths may be related to an earlier dramatic increase in the abuse of prescription drugs. Another contributing factor to the drug’s increased popularity and use is that the cost of heroin has decreased, while its potency has increased.
Heroin is classified as a narcotic. It is an opium derivative which is closely related to many prescription painkillers, called opioid analgesics. This category includes morphine, codeine, oxycodone, fentanyl and hydromorphone. According to the CDC, unintentional overdose deaths from opioid analgesics increased dramatically in the early 2000s. From 1999, the number of deaths had doubled by 2004 and tripled by 2007.
A 2011 study by Drexel University found that four out of five users of injected drugs – heroin being the most popular – has abused some form of prescription opioid before turning to an illegal substance. One of four injected drug users reported a prescription opioid as the first controlled substance they ever used.
The recent CDC data also supports the notion that prescription drug abuse has led to increases in the amount of heroin abuse. The same report includes information on overdose deaths from opioid analgesics. The death rate for these substances increased, as well, though at a more rapid pace. In 2000, the death rate was 1.5 per 100,000. By 2006, it had tripled, while the heroin death rate remained the same as it was in 2000.
However, while the death rate for opioid analgesics increased slightly and then even dropped in 2012, the heroin death rate soon took off. Between 2006 and 2011, the rate from heroin doubled, and by 2013 it had nearly doubled from that.
Immediate Adverse Effects of Heroin Use and Overdose
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse users reported, immediately effects including a “rush”; then dry mouth, skin flushing, heaviness of extremities, nausea vomiting, delirium, severe itching, drowsiness and cloudiness in mental function.
The primary risk of danger on the bodily systems with heroin use is the respiratory system. Opioids depress breathing functions by altering the brain’s neurochemical activity in the area of the brain that controls automatic bodily functions like breathing and heart rate. It can depress the heart rate and reduce oxygen enough to cause fluid in the lungs, deprivation of oxygen to the body, seizures, coma, brain damage, or death.
Long –Term and Other Effects of Heroin
The long term effects of heroin use solely from a medical stand point, can include, but are not limited to: addiction, withdrawal, deterioration of teeth, periodontal disease, and weakened immune system, breathing problems, liver disease, loss of memory, reduction in mental capacity, facial pustules, gastrointestinal problems, depression, sleep dysfunctions and other mental disturbances. Chronic use and shared needles can also lead to AIDS, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases.
Related Dangers: Heroin Laced with Fentanyl Overdose Warnings
Last week the Federal Drug Enforcement Agency issued a nationwide warning about a surge in overdoses resulting from Fentanyl-Laced Heroin. It is being described as a “significant threat to public health and safety”. Drug overdoses due to heroin laced with Fentanyl are occurring at an alarming rate. Fentanyl is said to be 100 times stronger than morphine, and is the most powerful opioid available to doctors. It’s a drug intended to be used to suppress extreme pain due to advanced staged disease such as bone cancer. But it’s being sold on the streets as heroin. Most users have no idea what’s in the heroin they are buying or using, making it far more lethal, than it’s already inherent risks.
Arizona’s Heroin Arrests Statistics
Recently it was reported Arizona ranks as being the sixth highest state in the nation experiencing an increase of heroin use and abuse among teens, and that officials have seen a disturbing trend of increased use. Officials of the Drug Enforcement Agency Phoenix division reported that that drug seizures at the border increased by 300 percent in recent years.
It was reported that in Gilbert, AZ, alone arrests had also increased by 300 percent, with the rise in teen use being a significant contributing factor. Cities across the state are struggling with the rise of its use. Deaths have reportedly doubled in the last decade in Arizona. In Tempe Arizona it was reported that the DEA and Attorney General recently completed a 2.5 year investigation which resulted in dismantling an extensive drug trafficking network that covered three states, as well as Mexico.
Narcan the Life Saving Drug for Heroin Overdose Reversal
In our prior discussion we explored the uses, and trends of an injectable lifesaving drug called Narcan (Trade name) or Naloxone. This is an opiate antagonist, meaning it has the capability of preventing death if administered to a person suffering from an overdose of opiates, including heroin. It is administered with a hand-held auto-injector “Evizo” (Naloxone hydrochloride injection), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2014.
The injector provides an emergency lifesaving dose of Narcan for potentially fatal overdoses of heroin. The drug had proven highly effective in reversing otherwise fatal effects of heroin overdoses.
The Federal Drug Enforcement Agency reported that since 2001, Narcan has been credited with reducing over 10,000 otherwise fatal heroin overdoses.
Narcan was traditionally used in Emergency Rooms and by first response paramedics. However, since first responders to the scene were an overdose is often the police or immediate care givers, many states have passed laws allowing police and other qualified first responders to be trained to administer the drug and equipped with it. As a result, police and care givers in some states are now allowed to carry lifesaving drug Narcan which is proving to save more lives.
Administration of Narcan
Lori Combs, BS, RN, Clinical Nurse Consultant an experienced clinician in ER, Trauma, Cardiology Forensic Nursing, and Death Investigations training, had this insight to share about the actual administration of Narcan:
Naloxone or Narcan (Trade Name) is an opioid antagonist which means the Narcan molecules compete for the opioid receptor sites in the central nervous system. Narcan is usually given by medical personnel such as Paramedics, Physicians and Registered Nurses via an intravenous access site. The reversal effects of the Narcan can occur within a couple of minute given in this method. If intravenous access is not available this drug can be given in the deep muscle of the buttock, upper arm or outer thigh area. Or it can be given into the fat of the abdomen or the back of the upper arms. If given in the deep muscle or fat, the mechanism of action will be slower compared to the intravenous access. One word of caution, these patients that experience the reversal effects of Narcan can then exhibit withdrawal symptoms from the opioid within minutes and need to be medically treated immediately.
Expansion of Laws for Police to be Trained and Equipped to Administer Narcan
Last March 2014, the United States Attorney General publically urged all law enforcement agencies in the US to train and equip their officers to administer Narcan. A total of 17 states currently have laws that allow for police to administer Narcan as first responders.
The state and government’s response to Narcan has been favorable, and many states have either passed laws or are in the process of expanding laws to allow other first responders to be equipped and trained to administer Narcan.
The Arizona Legislature is currently poised to pass new laws aimed to curb deaths from heroin overdose.
Under House Bill 2489, a police officer or emergency medical technician would be permitted to administer Narcan.
If passed, Arizona’s police and other eligible first responders would join at least 18 states that have passed laws nationwide allowing police to be trained, and equipped to use Narcan for an otherwise fatal heroin overdose.
HB 2489 passed the House of Representatives by a vote of 59-1, and is currently awaiting a vote in the Senate.
Signs and Symptoms of Heroin Use
All too often after tragedy strikes, a loved one including parents are stunned due to the fact they were unaware their child or loved one was using or abusing heroin. Early detection and intervention is crucial. Here are some signs and symptoms that may reveal someone is using or abusing heroin:
- Frequent nausea or vomiting;
- Chronic drowsiness;
- Scratches on skin due to uncontrollable itching;
- Flushed face, tiny pupils and no response of pupils to light;
- Slow breathing; coughing, runny nose, respiratory disturbance;
- Remnants of brown powder , dark sticky residue or crumbling substances;
- Syringes, glass or metal pipes;
- Belts or rubber tubing for injections;
- Baggies, burnt spoons,
- Loss of appetite;
- Sweating, twitching or tremors;
- Fully covering skin, especially on arms to hide needle marks
What to do if you Suspect a Loved one is using or abusing Heroin
According to HelpGuide.org, it is natural for parents to feel angry, and sometimes blame themselves. Parents and guardians are urged to resist the urge to punish, preach, or threaten the youth.
Instead it is recommended that the parent or loved one try their best to do the following:
- Speak up, and reach out to the person about their concerns;
- Remain calm; and only discuss the concerns under sobriety of both parties;
- Be prepared for denials with a list of behavior problems and concerns noted:
- Take care of yourself, and your health needs;
- Let the person accept responsibility for their actions;
- Institute rules and be prepared to execute the consequences if the rules are broken;
- Monitor your teens, or loved one’s activities, including knowing with whom they are with;
- Encourage healthy interests and participation of extracurricular activities;
- Explore underlying issues such as pain, stress, or other causes;
- Seek professional help, education, counseling and treatment
Why Heroin Use and Arrests are on the Rise in Arizona and throughout the United States
The most recent statistics reported for heroin and other opiate arrests in Arizona by the Arizona Department of Highway Safety were in 2013. Heroin and other opium related crimes include possession, trafficking and sales. The total arrest related to these crimes were 3,549, a 7 percent increase over 2012, totaling 3,315.
On a national level the Drug Enforcement Agency reported in its 2014 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary that the greatest increasing threat facing our country in 2014 was posed by heroin. Heroin seizures at borders were 4 times higher in 2013 over 2009. Increase in use was second only to methamphetamine. Reasons cited included the following:
- Increased demand;
- Controlled prescription drug users who switched from prescription drugs to heroin.
- Controlled prescription drug users switched to heroin due to the decreased availability of prescriptions resulting from law enforcement and legislative efforts to thwart operation of illicit pill mills, doctor shopping, and unethical physician practices.
- Price of heroin is relatively low as compared to the cost of prescription drugs.
Arizona Laws and Criminal Penalties for Heroin Convictions
In addition to the highly dangerous health and medical risks of use and abuse of heroin are the criminal consequences of use, possession, transport, sale or distribution.
Narcotics crimes including heroin, carry some of the most serious penalties under Arizona Drug Law. Under both the federal Controlled Substances Act and the Arizona Uniform Controlled Substance Acts, it is listed as a Schedule I substance, meaning it has no accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. It is classified as a “narcotic drug” in Arizona Revised Statutes 13-3401(21).
Under Arizona Revised Statutes 13-3408, heroin charges can include:
- Possession or use, a class 4 felony, with a range of punishment from four to eight years in prison;
- Possession with intent to sell, a class 2 felony, with a sentence ranging from seven to 21 years in prison;
- Possession of equipment or chemicals for the manufacture of heroin, a class 3 felony, punishable by five to 15 years in prison;
- Manufacturing heroin, a class 2 felony, with a seven to 21 year range of imprisonment;
- Administering heroin to another person, a class 2 felony, with a seven to 21 year range of imprisonment; and
- Transporting or importing, or offering to transport or import, heroin into the state, a class 2 felony, with a seven to 21 year range of imprisonment.
All heroin charges result in felony convictions, which have broad implications. Penalties for convictions include expensive fines, fees, and costs of assessments; participation in a substance abuse counseling and treatment programs; loss of some civil rights associated with felony records which include loss of the privilege of possessing a firearm; and loss of voting rights.
Criminal Defense Attorney, Mesa, AZ, Heroin Drug Possession and Use Charges
A majority of the heroin charges that are brought relate to use and possession in Arizona, which are aggressively prosecuted.
Many overdoses go unreported because the users or witnesses fear criminal repercussions. But the decision not to seek emergency help can be fatal for the user. It is far more important to call #911 or seek immediate medical help. If a criminal arrest follows as a result, your criminal defense attorney can help defend your rights and the charges.
Heroin is a highly addictive substance, and many people accused of these crimes suffer from the disease of addiction. If a person is accused of mere possession of heroin, he or she may be eligible for drug court if he or she pleads guilty. Maricopa County Drug Court is a court-supervised treatment program. Upon successful completion, the person admitted may have their felony charge reduced to a misdemeanor. A person must seek admission from the Maricopa County Attorney’s Office, and not all are accepted. Your defense attorney can help negotiate acceptance and qualification for participation in the program.
Not all of those charged will qualify for the drug treatment program due to eligibility factors. So it is critical that you retain a highly skilled and experienced drug crimes defense attorney to defend your charges and protect your rights.
Because a person is charged or arrested for a heroin crime, that does not necessarily mean they will be convicted or found guilty of that crimes, or receive the maximum statutory penalties. With drug crimes, there are often defenses that a skilled criminal defense attorney can use to get a favorable outcome in your case. Those outcomes might include suppression of key evidence, reduction of charges or penalties, alternative penalties to incarceration, and in some cases dismissal of charges.
As a former prosecutor and experienced Mesa AZ drug defense lawyer, James E. Novak can assist you by explaining all your options to you, helping your choose the best one and zealously fighting for your best interests. If you choose to fight the charges, he will seek every available defense and to have your charges reduced or dismissed. Contact the Law Office of James E. Novak today to schedule a free confidential consultation, to discuss your matter and options for defense.
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Posted in Drug Crimes